北九州市大手町ビル6階 アジア成長研究所 会議室
陳 信宏 台湾 中華経済研究院第二研究所 研究員兼所長
「Post Catch-up with Market Cultivation and Product Servicizing: Case of Taiwan’s Transportation Equipment Industries」
We set out to examine a key issue: how a latecomer, like Taiwan may develop its industry in a post catch-up manner. We make intensive inquiries into this issue via case studies on two sectors in Taiwan, namely the bicycle industry and the electric vehicle industry. One challenge to post catch-up is related to the situation where innovation model and path are at the fluid
phase and where scarce opportunity for imitation is present. This has led us to giving special account to fuzzy front-end at the industrial level and how market cultivation and innovative business models come to play an important role in shaping the innovation path for post catch-up. For a couple of leading players in Taiwan’s bicycle industry, a key issue they faced was how to transform themselves and local setting in Taiwan to become a leader in high-end bicycles, in an attempt to fend off escalated international competition. In the emerging EV industry, the Taiwanese players try to overcome its structural weaknesses in the mainstream automotive industry to explore the possibility of leveling the playing field with the forerunners in the advanced countries. Our case studies suggest that technological catch-up is not necessary a prelude to post catch-up, depending on the nature of new innovation trajectory and entry modes of the emerging industry. While the way in which a latecomer’s industry to rise in a post-catch-up manner has something to do with path dependence, something can be done to overcome the path dependence. Our analyses also lend support to the importance of product servicing as a means of post catch-up, especially from the perspective of market cultivation. On balance, for post catch-up at an industrial level, a latecomer’s innovation system and its boundaries have to be shaped in line with the country’s level of technological accumulation, constituent firm’s strategy, the complexity of the innovation at issue, and the way in which the focal industry is emerging.
劉 珍根 韓国産業研究院（KIET）産業経済研究室 先任研究委員
「The analysis of Global Value Chain (GVC) income and jobs and its implication for the workforce policy」
This paper analyzes Global Value Chain (GVC) income and jobs using the World Input-Output Table (WIOT) and Socio-Economic Accounts (SEAs) in the World Input Output Database. We apply the method proposed by Timmer et al.(2013), which decomposes the value of a final product into the value added by all labor and capital involved directly and indirectly in its global value chain. First, we study the change of the GVC income and jobs induced by the world demand for final manufacturing goods. The share of manufacturing GVC jobs in the total number of workers engaged for 40 countries decreased during 1995-2011 due to the progress of servitization and the expansion of GVC into the Rest Of the World (ROW). The share of the high-skilled GVC jobs increased by 2.7% points for 40 countries during 1995-2009. It increased by 17.3% points for South Korea.Second, we analyze the change of GVC income and jobs induced by the demand for the final IT manufacturing goods of Korea. During the sample period (1995 -2011), the share of Korean and Japanese GVC income decreased respectively (70.6% → 61.8%, 8.7% → 4.8%), while the share of China and ROW increased (1.2% → 8.9%, 4.3% → 8.1%) respectively. The share of the high-skilled GVC jobs involved in the Korea’s IT manufacturing GVC increased by 9.2% points during the sample period (19.0% → 28.2%). The proportion of high-skilled jobs for Korea increased from 23.6% in 1995 to 43.0% in 2009.Finally, based on our analyses, we derive implications for the workforce policy. These are: (1) the need for policies to deal with the skill-biased effect of GVC without being caught in high-skilled trap, (2) the importance of components and materials industry to maintain employment, (3) the need to benchmark German case, (4) the need to prepare for the change of manufacturing paradigm such as a smart factory system, (5) the importance of service jobs involved in manufacturing GVCs.