The Indonesian automotive industry has been characterized as a classic case of an infant industry that has failed to grow despite the government’s attempts to stimulate the industry’s growth through various protective measures. Under the recently liberalized trade regime, the industry is facing increasing pressure from international competition. The purpose of this paper is to examine the recent trends in exports, imports and plant eﬃciency in the automotive industry. One of the main ﬁndings of the analysis is that the recently liberalized trade regime has positively aﬀected the exports of Indonesia’s automotive industry. The study also ﬁnds that imports from the ASEAN region are increasing and this has positively aﬀected productivity in some groups of plants including locally and foreign-owned plants.