北九州市大手町ビル6階 アジア成長研究所 会議室
近藤 絢子（KONDO Ayako) 東京大学社会科学研究所 准教授
“The Effect of Raising Long-term Care Insurance Payments on Employment and Wages in Nursing Industry”
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of raising Long-term Care Insurance (LCI) payments on employment and wages of nursing industry workers. Specifically, I use the change in the regional premium in 2012 as an exogenous shock to the insurance fee schedule: in some municipalities, the unit price of services covered by the LCI increased by up to 3.5%, whereas others experienced a decline. I find no increase in the number of employees in the establishments registered to the long-term care insurance scheme in municipalities where insurance payments increased. The wages and working hours of workers in nursing industry did not increase, either. Instead, the amount of service provided under the LCI decreased, and this cancel out the increase in the unit price so that the total payments from the LCI to the long-term care providers did not change.
橋本 由紀（HASHIMOTO Yuki）九州大学経済学研究院経済工学部門 准教授
使用言語：発表 日本語、資料 英語
“Highly Skilled Immigrants’ Occupational Choices and the Japanese Employment System”
Abstract: This paper investigates the characteristics of educated immigrants’ occupational choices using microdata from the 2000 and 2010 Japanese censuses. Considering the practices of the Japanese labor market, we assume that educated immigrants who missed the timing of “port of entry” just after graduation find it difficult to join individual firms’ internal labor markets, and such people have little choice but to work in Type I (professional or technical) occupations using general skills or their country-specific skills to complement Japanese workers. In contrast, we assume that educated immigrants who have lived in Japan for relatively longer or Japan-educated immigrants can choose either Type I or Type II (managerial or clerical) occupations and commit to the Japanese employment system (JES). Using data analysis, we observe striking differences between Type I and Type II immigrants. Immigrants from developed countries are more likely to work in Type I occupations while those from East Asian countries, such as Korea and China, are more likely to work in Type II occupations. This variation can be partly explained by the industry in which they concentrate, their period of stay in Japan, and their place of education (Japan or otherwise). The different nature of embeddedness in the JES also affects the networks on which workers of each type depend when they are looking for employment in a given region. While Type I immigrants are more likely to obtain a job in an area with a greater number of Japanese workers in the same industry as compared with Type II immigrants, they are less likely to work in an area with a larger population of immigrants of the same nationality. Instead their decisions on occupational location have been more affected by a highly-skilled network regardless of nationality. Also, for Type I workers, the highly-skilled immigrants’ network has contrasting effects depending on economic conditions.